Kayode George (PhD), Toye Manuwa (PhD)


This paper examines the role of civil society and social movements in promoting human rights and democracy in Nigeria, a country that has faced multiple challenges in its transition from military rule to civilian governance since 1999. The paper draws on various sources, including reports by Amnesty International, the European Union, and civil society organizations, to highlight the main human rights issues and democratic deficits in Nigeria, such as insecurity, violence, media censorship, enforced disappearances, torture, arbitrary detention, forced evictions, and climate change impacts. The paper also analyzes the different forms of civil resistance and disobedience that have emerged in Nigeria in response to these challenges, such as protests by women, students, activists, journalists, and prisoners. The paper argues that civil society and social movements have played a vital role in holding the government accountable, demanding reforms, and advancing the cause of human rights and democracy in Nigeria. The paper concludes by offering some recommendations for strengthening the capacity and impact of civil society and social movements in Nigeria.


Civil society, social movement, Human rights, Democracy, Nigeria.

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