Olomu Babatunde Olukayode (PhD), Adewumi Eyitayo (PhD)


Intelligence cycle is an integral aspect of intelligence security system due to its cyclical processes which is all embracing particularly from intelligence conceptualization, collection, analysis, production, dissemination to utilization. These concepts largely constitute the core components of intelligence cycle processes, and they are intricately linked and interdependent with regard to border security maintenance and national security interest of any given nation. Also, the interdependent nature of intelligence cycle processes is rooted in the increasing trans-nationalization of security threats along border posts and the new global demand for more cooperation and coordination among security agencies. However, the consistent variations in the intelligence cycle working definitions has become profound through the existence of different scholarly views both on its concept and practicability across the world. This study therefore is important because it is an attempt at examining intelligence cycle model being employed by the Customs Intelligence Unit (CIU) of the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS). Thus, it concludes that intelligence cycle operations, dynamism and challenges can best be understood in its specific context, be it Nigeria or other countries in the world. On this basis, the study adopts both qualitative and quantitative approach in its data analysis. 


Intelligence cycle, Border security, Customs intelligence Unit, Nigeria Customs Service.

Full Text:



Adaramodu, O. D. (2016). “The Security Implication of Inter-Agency Rivalry between the Customs and the Immigration in Ilara Border Nigeria”. M. A. Dissertation submitted to the Institute of Peace and Strategic Studies, University of Ibadan.

Adeniji, Muritala. (2018). “The Role of Customs Services in Trade Facilitation, Comparison between Nigeria and Finland”. A Thesis at the Centria University of Applied Sciences (May).

Alemika, Etannibi E. O. (2012). “Intelligence-led Policing in the 21st Century”, in Operationalizing Intelligence led-Policing in Nigeria, Conference Proceedings. CLEEN Foundation Monograph Series. No 17.

Babatunde, O. A. (2009). “National Security and Migration: towards and Effective Cross-Border Management in Nigeria”. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organizational for Migration (IOM).

Bartes, F. (2013). “Five-Phase Model of the Intelligence Cycle of Competitive Intelligence”. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 33(2), 283-288. Retrieved from

Bigelow, M. E. (2012). “A Short History of Army Intelligence”. Military Intelligence, 21.

Born, Hans, Leigh, Ian and Wills, Aidan. (2012). International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability. New York: Routledge.

Born, Hans. (2011). International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability. Milton Park: Routledge.

Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). “The Intelligence Cycle”. Retrieved from

Chalk,P. (2004). “Confronting the Enemy Within”. Retrieved from

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1976). Cited in Hutton. (2010). “Regional Security, Early Warning and Intelligence Cooperation in Africa”.

Customs Reforms and Modernisation in Nigeria: Towards a Comprehensive Vision. (2013). Global South Group.

Deconde, A. (2002). Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, Second Edition, Volume 2. New York: Scribner Press.

Ezelebor, A. W. (2005). “The Challenges of Cross Border Criminality to National Security in Nigeria”. M. A. Dissertation. Submitted to the Department of Peace and Conflicts Studies, Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan.

Firester, D.E. (June, 2011), “FAILURE TO ADAPT Intelligence Failure and Military Failure as Functions of Strategic Failure?” Master’s Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of International Affairs at the City College of New York.

Flavius-Cristian, Mărcău and Andreea, Ciorei Mihaela. (2013). “The Role of Intelligence in the Fight against Terror”. European Scientific Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2.

Hardima, N. (2008). “Politics and Social Partnership, Flexible Network Governance”. Economic and Social Reviews, Vol. 37, No. 3.

Heindenrich, John G. (2012). “The State of Strategic Intelligence”. Retrieved from

Hutton, L. A. (2010). “Regional Security, Early Warning and Intelligence Cooperation in Africa”. Thesis, University of the Western Cape.

Kaiser, M. F. (2011). “Inter-Agency Collaborative Arrangement and Activities: Types, Rationales, Consideration”. Inter-Agency Paper No. 5, (Online) Retrieved from Accessed 15th July, 2018.

Lobkinar, Branko. (2014). Intelligence and Combating Terrorism: New Paradigm and Future Challenges. Caleta, Denis and Shamella, Paul (eds.) Ljubljana, Slovenia: Institute for Corporate Security Studies.

Lowenthal, M. M. (2002). Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, [second edition].

McGruddy, Janine. (2013). “Multilateral Intelligence Collaboration and International Oversight”. Journal of Strategic Security, No. 5, Vol. 6. 214-220.

Metscher, R., and Gilbride, B. (2005). “Intelligence as an Investigative Function”, (August).

Negulescu, F. (2011). “Intelligence Sharing and Dissemination in Combined oint Special Operations”. Journal of Defense Resources Management, No. 2, Vol. 2. Romania.

Odezulu, I. N. (2008). “Crises Management”. Being a Paper Presented at PTS, Enugu, April, 14, 2008.

Odoma, Samuel. (2014). “Superiority Struggles and Inter-Agency Feud in Nigeria”. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: Sociology and Culture, Vol. 14, Issue 5.

Ofongo, Olusegun A. (2018). “Defence Strategy: Intelligence and Management of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria”. A Master Thesis submitted to the Department of Political Studies, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.

Oghi, F. E. and Unumen, J. O. (2014). “Military Intelligence and the Challenge of National Security in Contemporary Nigeria”. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies, Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2014.

Okereke, D. (2016). “Widespread Insecurity in Nigeria: A Case for URGENT Restructuring of Security, Intelligence Agencies”. SECURITY ANALYST/CONSULTANT.

Olalikan, O. (2013). “The Limitation of Intelligence”. Arase (ed.) National Security Intelligence and Community Partnership Approach. Abuja: Law Lords Publications.

Omoigui, A. N. (2006). “Inter-Service Relations: Imperative for Jointness”. Being a Lecture delivered at the National War College (Defence College). Abuja, 27 January.

Peterson, Marilyn. (2005). Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture. BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance.

Robert, M.C. (2004). Intelligence Analysis: A Target-Centric Approach. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

Stokes, R. L. (2013). “Employing the Intelligence Cycle Process

Model within the Homeland Security Enterprise”. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. Retrieved from

Takaya, B. J. (2001). “The Structure of Conflict in Nigerian Federalism”, in Elaigwu, J. I. and Akindele, P. S. (eds.) Foundations of Nigerian Federalism 1960-1995. Jos: Institute of Governance and Social Research.

Vanotten, A. G. (2005). “Culture Matters”. Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, 31, 1. Retrieved December 2017 from

Wali, M. A. (2010). “Security Sector Reform in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects for the Intelligence Community”.

Walsh, James Igoe. (2010). The International Politics of Intelligence Sharing. New York: Columbia University Press. 5

Young, Brian. (2018). “Application of the Intelligence Cycle to Prevent Impacts of Disastrous Wildland Fires”. A Thesis submitted to Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California.


The Nation, 21 December, 2014.

Montage Africa Magazine, 21 December, 2014.

Premium Times Newspaper, 9th July, 2016.

Tell Magazine, August 28, 2014.

Vanguard Newspaper, 21 December, 2014.

The Punch – Nigeria’s most widely Read Newspaper, 3 June, 2015.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Olomu Babatunde Olukayode (PhD), Adewumi Eyitayo (PhD)










ISSN (PRINT):    2682 - 6135

ISSN (ONLINE): 2682 - 6127





Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.