David Markus Shekwolo (PhD), Luka Odita Ashafa, Doka Jerry James, Deborah Ahemen Saaka


This study is an investigation into the compensation of the victims of the multiple conflicts that had occurred in Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Some of these conflicts, though political and economic, usually have religious undertone to it. Notable among these conflicts are the year 2000 Sharia crisis, the 2011 post-election crisis and the recurrent farmers-herders’ crisis. The study explicates the coping strategies employed by the victims to ameliorate the agony that comes with their victimization status especially those with multiple victimization experiences. In another vein, the research also unearths the victims’ perception of justice in the light of government politicization of relief materials. The exploratory nature of this study necessitated the employment of a qualitative method of research; non-probability sampling technique was used to reach the participants of the research and to choose the study areas which was purposive because such areas are the worst hit of all the violent conflicts that had occurred in the region. Kafanchan, the main urban area of Jema’a and four other villages were chosen for the research which was on the basis of their frequent exposure to violent conflicts. There are total of 29 participants in the research which includes traditional leaders, religious leaders, women (mostly widows), youths, and the disable. In the administration of research instruments, In-depth Interview, Focus Group discussions and observations were administered to the participants on the issue of victim compensations, their perception of what justice is, and the coping strategies they employed in the aftermath of the crises that have ravaged their communities. The result of the study shows victims were not properly compensated and many of the victims have suffered multiple experiences. Some of the victims have device means of survival that is alien to their social status and cultural beliefs and are taking menial jobs to keep body and soul together. Politicization of relief materials and the lack of commitment on the part of the government to prosecute perpetrators of the conflicts has deepened the animosity between Christian and Muslims and in this regard, victims have a very awful perception of justice. In conclusion, it was found that many of the victims lack means of livelihood and instead of trading or farming, have decided to take jobs that pay less for their security. It further shows that adequate lack of compensation and prosecution of offenders still opens the communities to future conflicts as many victims are carrying grudges of previous conflicts. Many of the participants opined that there is no justice on the part of government and that the government is showing favoritism in dealing with offenders. The study recommends that the Kafanchan 2018 peace accord should be implemented; there should be speedy dispensation of justice and that victims should be adequately compensated to avoid future occurrences of such violent conflicts. 


Conflict, Coping strategies, Victims Compensation, Perception of Justice

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